Tag Archives: html

CGI.pm vs Templates

I’ve just been involved in a discussion on LinkedIn that I thought deserved a wider audience (I have no idea how well that link works if you’re not a member or or logged in to LinkedIn).

A couple of days ago, someone asked for advice on the best way to include HTML in a Perl program. They got a lot of good advice (basically – don’t do that, use a templating system instead). And then this morning, someone came in and said:

use CGI module, u don’t need to write a single HTML tag..just use CGI Methods…

I did a bit of a double take at that point. I thought we’d all stopped using CGI.pm’s HTML generation methods back in the last millennium. I replied saying that, but this chap was adamant that CGI.pm worked for him. He asked me to explain why I was so against his approach.

This was my reply:

I never said that it didn’t work. I just think that it’s a really limited way to build things and you’d be better off taking a more flexible approach right from the start.

My main objection is the separation of concerns. The logic of your application is separate to the display layer. It’s quite possible that the display of the application will need to change in the future. And that all becomes easier if the HTML is stored separately from code.

This leads to other problems too:

As I hinted at above, CGI.pm only has pretty basic support for HTML. It’s really hard to create a great-looking web application using CGI.pm. In fact, I wouldn’t be surprised if CGI.pm was largely responsible for the terrible web sites that the Perl community has been building for itself for most of the last twenty years.

Your project might well have HTML experts who know how to create good looking web pages. Expecting them to do it by editing Perl code is a bad idea. Front end developers need to know HTML, CSS and Javascript. Why force them to understand Perl as well?

Even if you’re the only developer on a project (as I often am for my personal projects) there are advantages to separating your work into “front-end task” and “back-end tasks”. I find it really helps me switch my mindset to the appropriate skills if I switch from editing a Perl source file to editing an HTML template.

It makes your Perl code more complicated than it needs to be. Seriously, try moving the HTML out of the code and into a template. See how much simpler your code becomes.

It’s unlikely that your CGI-generated pages will make up all of the web site. There will almost certainly be static pages too. If you use a tool like the Template Toolkit then you can generate static pages from the same set of templates that your CGI programs use. That way it’s easier to maintain a consistent look and feel across all of the pages on the site.

I’m not saying “don’t use CGI.pm” (well, I am a bit – but that’s a different story). The CGI bits of CGI.pm (for example the bits that give you access to the incoming parameters or let you set the outgoing headers) are great. It’s just the HTML generation stuff that I strongly recommend that you don’t use.

I’ve just remembered an article that I wrote in 2001 that might also help. The first half is about cookies, but the second half demonstrates using Templates instead of the HTML generation methods. I hope it shows how much simpler it makes things

See http://mag-sol.com/articles/cgi3.html

Does that help at all?

I think that pretty much sums up my objections. Did I miss anything obvious? Or am I completely wrong and many of you are still using the HTML generation methods in CGI.pm to do this?

The Perl community on LinkedIn is a fascinating place. I should really write a blog post about it.